Tag Archives: copywriting

The three Cs (and the fourth)

Imagine a relationship between two people.

Maybe it’s yours with a partner or a friend. Maybe it’s your parents’ relationship or a friend’s marriage.

Maybe it’s blissful, maybe it’s wobbly from time to time, or maybe it’s a continual stream of misunderstandings and niggles. If it’s good, you can bet the couple in question have the three Cs down to a T. If it’s bad, they’re not applying the three Cs.

“What are these three Cs?” I hear you mutter impatiently, “And what the blazes has this babble about personal relationships to do with my business?”

The three Cs are communication, co-operation and consistency.

In a relationship, most people would agree, communication is fundamental to success. A couple that communicates well is given a greater chance of success; each party knows the other’s views, concerns and hopes.

Co-operation ought to speak for itself. No relationship can work if the people involved are continually at loggerheads. Identifying one another’s needs and goals and working together to meet and achieve them is critical to fulfilment.

Consistency needn’t mean predictability or lack of spontaneity. It does mean peace of mind, no misunderstandings and no mixed messages.

And the reason this is all relevant is that business is, in essence, a series of relationships.

Think of the various relationships between directors, managers and staff; department and department; company and stakeholders; company and staff; company and press; company and public; and company and client.

Now think about which departments are involved in these various relationships. Imagine all the room for miscommunication and misunderstanding and the innumerable adverse ways this could affect your business.

You can reduce the risk of lost sales, failed client relationships, staff disengagement, department rivalry and damage to public confidence in your company by applying the three Cs carefully.


The most sensible way to ensure there is good communication internally and externally, co-operation between departments and consistency of message is this: all communications channels sit under the stewardship of one senior staff member, preferably at board level.

He or she should have a modern and collaborative approach, great delegation skills and trust in his or her teams, coupled with a good awareness of technology and its benefits.

It’s also crucial that relevant departments (marketing, communications, public relations, human resources and IT) understand that they are service departments first and foremost. They’re there to aid staff, other departments, and the company as a whole to achieve aims. They’re facilitators. I’ve seen IT departments, for instance, with their own agenda and the mistaken belief that they should choose and own all technology. Wrong. IT is a collection of tools to help others do their jobs. The role of the department is to facilitate this – to store, safeguard and assist in the dissemination of company data. HR is more than capable of evaluating the software it requires to do the job; IT needs to confirm the software will work and then do everything possible to deliver and support the HR department’s preferred choice.

The understanding that these departments are service departments is absolutely vital to cut out conflict and ensure co-operation.

Consider now all the methods of communication a company might use.


• Email, intranet, news announcements, department and company newsletters & in-house magazines, training guides, introduction pack, staff handbooks, document templates and more


• Email, website, blog, advertising, marketing material, social media, sales letters and bid documents, company newsletters and magazines, sponsorship, signage, branded goods, press releases, articles, report & accounts and other stakeholder communications.

It’s a lot to co-ordinate. And it’s originating from a number of different departments. These are all communication channels which need to be perfected in order to exploit them fully. But you can only hope to communicate internally and externally with real and positive impact if your decision-makers and heads of department are communicating and co-operating consistently.

That attitude, along with the methods and processes they should put in place, will greatly improve internal co-operation and communication. That in turn enables rounded, co-ordinated, complementary and non-duplicating external communications.

Is that it?

No. You see, I’ve left out two communications documents that deliver the third C.

Consistent tone of voice for your internal and external communications is a sign of professionalism. It increases staff engagement, public belief and client buy-in. The same goes for meaningful, aesthetic and consistent branding.

The two missing documents are the company style guide and the corporate identity guidelines. I’ve mentioned these previously as part of how to protect your brand, and they should become a company’s bible, and made available to every member of staff. In combination they help every department and every employee to deliver consistency.

So, the three Cs: co-operation, communication and consistency.

But wasn’t there a fourth?

Yep – and perhaps predictably enough, it’s copywriting.

Every element of every communications channel requires copywriting. That doesn’t mean you have to bring in a freelance copywriter if you already have the skills in-house, but the three Cs demonstrate the importance of the fourth – good copywriting. Your copywriter doesn’t just help you create the style guide and corporate identity which should inform your every communication; he or she has a direct bearing on every piece of communication you embark upon. It’s not fluffy nonsense (although it sure as hell isn’t working in a steelworks) – it’s fundamental to the success of every relationship your company is involved in.

The jargon balance

The corporate world is full of abbreviations and acronyms. Buzzwords abound in every industry; mystifying, elucidating, exciting and tedious in equal measure, depending on the reader.

It’s a tightrope to walk and one slip means the loss of potential clients.

Like the rest of this cruel and complicated world, writing and communicating isn’t just black and white. Pepper your prose with jargon and you might alienate the people in need of your expertise. And while ‘jargon-free’ is a selling point, you do have to demonstrate that you’re knowledgeable and skilled with the tools of your trade. Want visitors to your site? Your SEO copywriter* needs to draw together a clever combination of industry keywords and plain language key phrases to give you good search engine visibility.

There’s a simple way of getting the jargon balance right.

  • Firstly and most importantly, consider carefully the message you want to communicate; the target readership and its level of understanding; and the image you want to convey.
  • Secondly, use a professional copywriter. Copywriters specialise in crafting custom communications to draw, intrigue and of course explain.
  • Finally, work closely together to ensure that any ambiguities are cleared up, your knowledge is beyond doubt and your approach neither patronising nor superior.

Throughout this process bear in mind that every piece of writing you produce, whether advertising copy, email marketing, or even a niche newsletter, should fit your established brand. People beyond your target audience may well be reading, and therefore judging. That can have an impact on recruitment, press perception, sales and more beyond. Walk that tightrope with precision and take no chances. Above all, write for real people rather than search engines.

*An SEO copywriter is one who specialises in writing search engine optimised text, which, in combination with other SEO techniques, will boost the website in question up the search rankings for selected words and phrases.

Ten steps to being found online – an internet guide for SMEs

Several years ago I wrote and distributed a free guide to internet marketing for companies who feel they’re rather behind the curve. With the website update in 2013, this was one of the posts I felt compelled to keep available.

Ten steps to being found online – an internet marketing guide for start-ups, SMEs and those that got left behind takes the rookie website owner through the necessary steps to rise through the search rankings, raise brand awareness and increase website visitor numbers. If your internet marketing strategy is rather wanting, this may well be worth a read. While there have been additions to the social media sphere since I wrote Ten steps, such as Pinterest, as an introduction to web marketing and improving online visibility, the principles and the content all remains completely valid.

It’s a freebie, and I’d encourage you all to share a link to the guide with anyone you feel might benefit.

Just click here to download the guide and please share the link to this page to any individuals or small companies you feel might benefit. Thanks!

The internet vs the Internet

Language evolves. Like it or not, the way we write and speak has changed over the years, and continues to do so at a rate which alarms many, and confuses others. So, rules about language usage change. What’s more, they change at a varying rate, so what is accepted in one English-speaking country may still be considered wrong in another. Some rules remain constant, invoking no debate. Those who don’t know the difference between its and it’s can quickly establish the rules. Other matters are more subjective, with capitalisation the cause of some debate.

The trigger for this piece was my recollection of a discussion on Twitter. The Guardian Style Guide (@guardianstyle) is the Guardian newspaper’s reference point for all things written – where the paper’s journalists turn for answers on such matters. Most major publications have their own style guide, and those that don’t will, in all likelihood follow the rules laid down by one of the big boys. I personally have two style guides so that I can cross-reference: those produced by the Guardian (see http://www.guardian.co.uk/styleguide) and the Economist (see http://www.economist.com/research/styleguide/). Each has fuller print editions available to buy.

Now while these guides are available for public consumption, their primary purpose was to ensure consistency within the authoring newspaper’s publication. Consistency within a single document or publication, as any professional proofreader will assure you, is extremely important. And that’s because the goal of any document is to communicate clearly an idea or a set of messages. Sometimes by simply missing out a hyphen we can change a meaning to a quite disastrous alternative; an example quoted by fellow freelance copywriter @TurnerInk could spark farcical fallout: extra marital sex and extra-marital sex. But even if we recognise that two different spellings, or for the purposes of this piece, two different instances of capitalisation, have the same meaning, their simultaneous inclusion within one document will give many pause for thought. And that’s a distraction from the purpose of the document: to deliver information clearly.

Back to Twitter. I’d picked up on a message from @guardianstyle recommending: webpage, website, the web, world wide web, and retweeted it, along with the hopeful plea that ‘internet’ receives the same lower case treatment. Joy of joys, the guide was back to me to confirm my strongly held opinion. Soon after, several Twitter users (Twitterer? Tweeter? Should we just call ourselves Twits and be done with it? Oh, and here the capitalisation shows that in this instance, though not precluding twittery in everyday life, we are twits on Twitter) had joined the debate, questioning this lower case judgement.

It’s understandable they would. Many reference sources still use an initial capital for internet. I’ve just read Michael Connelly’s latest book, and find that his use of ‘the Internet’ really distracts me from the otherwise flawless flow of his writing. The reality is that internet is an abbreviation of internetwork – several networks joined together – and that lots of internets exist around the world, but they’re not THE internet. Their argument therefore is that the Internet is quite different from an internet. Now that’s ok so far as it goes, and there’s no doubting the logic. I’m going to come back to that statement in just a moment. For now, let me return to the more general rule that the primary purpose of a document is to communicate with clarity.

Clarity doesn’t just incorporate meaning, it includes readability; the flow with which that information can be absorbed without becoming a chore. The usage of language and all its tools should be there to enhance the reading experience and not to distract from it. Excessive use of capitals distracts from the message, undermines the legitimate use of capitals, and is shown by readability studies to make copy harder to read. It doesn’t diminish the importance of the words themselves. So back to the internet. Yes, there’s more than one internet. But consider the argument for Internet: that the Internet is quite different from an internet. True, but every single reader of this (and, I believe, any document using either or both upper or lower cases) will immediately recognise that the use of ‘the’ in ‘the internet’ means the reference is to the world wide web, whereas ‘an internet’ refers to a more general network of networks…and in such cases where one might be writing purely about a network of networks, the subject matter – the context – would make the more general meaning clear.

And in fact those people questioning my opinion and that of @guardianstyle had already recognised that we were referring to the web. And in this context right here, you didn’t for a moment think I was talking about a spider’s web, did you? No – because our knowledge and acceptance of such language has moved on since these terms were introduced. It doesn’t make it inherently wrong to use a capital for internet, but doing so will be a distraction for many. That’s even truer in any document that might be littered with acronyms and initialisations, so prevalent in the technology industry for example – so why add to the eye-strain?

What’s more, it may alter your readers’ perception of you. Let’s take Michael Connelly, an outstanding and successful author, whose name is on my top ten when making recommendations. I know he’s active on social media – I follow him on Facebook – and yet whenever I read ‘the Internet’ in one of his books, I imagine him picturing the internet as some great wizard or unexplained magic, or his character instantly as some comedy backwoods inbred with a grandmother who’s also his daughter. Ridiculous I know, but I can’t help it. It feels, already, like antiquated usage; a concept referenced by someone wholly unfamiliar with it.

That’s not good, is it? That’s a distraction. I still know the meaning, but I’m off doing childish ‘that-thar gud-fer-nuthin’ Innernet bin poisonin’ yer mind boy’ impersonations in my head. So get yourselves on the internet (I understand you’ll require something known as a Personal Computer) and order a style guide.